Types of Sentence Connectors- How to solve questions on new pattern Sentence Connectors?

 

In this Smartkeeda blog post we are going to discuss different types of Sentence Connectors that are being asked in recently held Bank Exams. The topic ‘Sentence Connectors’ sounds tough but in reality, all that is really needed to master such questions is an understanding of conjunctions. So, before we move on to understanding the types of sentence connectors and how to solve sentence connector questions based on the new pattern , let us quickly recall what we know about Conjunctions.

What are conjunctions?

Before we learn the basics of Conjunctions with a view to understand types of Sentence Connectors, let’s look at the following statements:

I like to read.
I like to write.
I don’t like to mug up things.

Such statements are simple and short but expressing every statement this way can become very tiresome. Conjunctions help us join such statements together to make one single, coherent statement. So, the above statements would become-

I like reading and writing but do not like mugging up things.

So, in short, conjunctions help us save ink and paper (and our sanity) by helping us link several short statements into one long one.

Types of conjunctions:

Correlative Conjunctions:

As the name suggests, these conjunctions are used for statements where there is some sort of relation between them. Some examples:

Both/ and– I want both the book and the novel.
Either/or– We can either go for the movie or to the amusement park.
Neither/nor– He neither had the courage nor the will to go on.
Not only/but also– He not only wanted the best vacation but was also not willing to shell out money for it.

Subordinating Conjunctions:

These types of conjunctions are used to join dependent and independent fragments. Here, the fragments may have a cause-and-effect relationship or a sort of contradiction between them. Some examples:

Because: The monsoon is critical for 263 million farmers and their crops because nearly half of the country’s farmland lacks irrigation.
Since: Since India imports more than 90% of its gold, fluctuations in the international price translate into fluctuations in the cost of dowry.
Although: Although it is too early to comment on the processing power of this device, the chipset does give some good performance when it comes to daily use.

Coordinating conjunctions:

These conjunctions join statements that are equally important. Some examples:

And: The pizza is hot and spicy.
So: The traffic is so bad that it seemed we were crawling.
But: I love reading but hate writing.
Yet: I love dogs yet have no love for cats.
Nor: The President refused to back down nor did he pardon the convicts.
For: I do not enjoy partying for it is expensive and a waste of time.

Conjunctive adverb:

These adverbs basically join two sentences which are comparative or sequential in nature or may show a cause and effect relationship. Some examples:
Otherwise: You need to reach in time otherwise they may disqualify you.
Therefore: I reached well within time; therefore, I had a lot of time to prepare for my speech.
However: We needed to be there; however, we went the other way instead.
Meanwhile: The sun shone brightly in Delhi; meanwhile, it was raining heavily in Chandigarh.

 

Solving Different Types of Sentence Connectors

We first need to understand the type of various statements in order to understand what connectors would be suitable for each type. Typically, these are the different types of statements-

Complementary Statements:

These statements move in the same direction i.e. strengthen each other. The ideas/theme/subject expressed in such statements supplement/add on to the subject.

Example 1:

I. Competitive landscape in the global walnut market is high due to the strong presence of several players.
II. A lack of entry barriers for new players is expected to intensify the competition in the coming days.

Here, statement II adds on to the first one.

Example 2:

I. Government bodies are creating more and more awareness among consumers regarding the health benefits of edible nuts.
II. There has been a significant rise in the consumption of tree nuts.

Here, statement I adds on to the second one.

Some possible connectors in this case would be:

Furthermore Moreover In addition
Additionally Also Besides


Contrasting Statements:

These statements, as the name suggests, present contradictory/opposing views.

Example:

I. India remains, for the most part, extremely poor.
II. its population is so enormous that even a relatively small middle class is large in absolute terms.

Here, both the statements state opposite views with one talking about India being poor while the other stating that even then, in absolute terms, the middle class forms a substantial part. In such cases, some possible connectors in this case would be:

Even as Although However
On the other hand Notwithstanding Nonetheless

 

Comparison Statements:

In such statements, two or more things are being compared and the following connectors fit in well.

Example:

I. In the organized manufacturing sector, the pay gap between genders has narrowed from 35% in 2000 to 45% in 2013.
II. There has been a reduction in the earnings gap in female-dominated industries like food, tobacco, textiles etc.

 

Similarly Likewise Equally

Sequential Statements:

These statements talk about a particular chain of events. So, there is a definite order in which they should proceed. They may be taking place simultaneously or one after the other.

Example:

I. GDP growth had hit a peak of 9.3% in fourth quarter of 2015-16.
II. It declined steadily to hit a low of 5.6% in first quarter of 2017-18.

Meanwhile Presently Thereafter
Immediately Subsequently Eventually

 

Result oriented statements:

One of the statements would talk about the result/outcome of another statement.

Example:

I. The model code usually comes into force the day EC announces polls and remains enforced till the electoral process is completed.
II. Neither the caretaker state government nor the central government can announce any new schemes, projects, etc or undertake any of the activities prohibited under the Model Code of Conduct.

 

Hence Therefore Accordingly
Consequently Thereupon Thus
As a result So

 

Summary Statements:

One of the statements summarizes the other one or a subject.

Example:

I. Cloud security must be an inherent aspect of your cloud provider’s offerings, enabling you to secure your business at every possible layer with data being secure at rest, and in motion.
II. Security must be core to a cloud provider’s proposition, not an add-on.

In short On the whole In other words
to be sure Clearly In sum
After all So

Now that we understand the types of statements and their corresponding connectors, let us look at some sample questions and apply the information above.

Example of 1st Type of Sentence Connectors:

Directions: In each of the questions given below, there are three statements numbered (I), (II) & (III). Each of these statements further has two sub-statements. You are required to combine the two statements using the connecting word provided and choose the correct combination as your answer.

Meanwhile

 

  1. The withdrawal of notes had sparked an acute shortage of cash in India and had a deleterious effect on growth. This is clearly far higher than the up to Rs10 lakh crore the government expected.
  2. Agricultural production is likely to remain strong for the third consecutive year. Growth impulses in industry are strengthening, propelled by a sustained pick-up in manufacturing and mining activity.

III. It is a bit unfair to refer to poor English skills as inconsiderate behavior. The consumption of a copious amount of alcohol does seem to be a big problem.

(A.)  Only II

(B.)  Only I and II

(C.)  Only I and III

(D.)  Only II and III

(E.)  None of the above

 

Here, the connector- Meanwhile– has been provided –which means for now/in the meantime/temporarily.
This is used when two things are occurring simultaneously and indicates that statements should be sequential/time related.

Statement I: The withdrawal of notes had sparked an acute shortage of cash in India and had a deleterious effect on growth. This is clearly far higher than the up to Rs10 lakh crore the government expected.
The first part talks about an acute shortage of cash while the second states that the impact it had on the economy was more than expected. There is no concept of time in this set of statements and thus, meanwhile is not an appropriate connector here.

Statement III: It is a bit unfair to refer to poor English skills as inconsiderate behavior. The consumption of a copious amount of alcohol does seem to be a big problem.
Both the parts pertain to different topics and thus cannot be joined.

Statement II: Agricultural production is likely to remain strong for the third consecutive year. Growth impulses in industry are strengthening, propelled by a sustained pick-up in manufacturing and mining activity.

Here, one part of the statement talks about agriculture growth while the other talks about what’s happening in manufacturing and mining in terms of growth. The underlying theme is growth here which is then expressed in terms of different sectors and at the same time. Here, meanwhile is a perfect fit.

So, the final statement would be-

Agricultural production is likely to remain strong for the third consecutive year and meanwhile, growth impulses in industry are strengthening, propelled by a sustained pick-up in manufacturing and mining activity.

 

Example of 2nd Type of Sentence Connectors:

Directions: In each of the questions given below, there are three statements numbered (I), (II) & (III). Each of these statements further has two sub-statements. You are required to combine the two statements using the connecting word provided and choose the correct combination as your answer.

Besides

I. The leaders at the summit would deliberate on having a tri-services military exercise among the member nations. They would be exchanging views on a free trade agreement.

II. The incident shows India has the capacity to handle disasters like these. It also signals India’s economic clout as an aid donor.

III. There is a decrease in the demand from vanaspati mills. There is an increase in arrivals from producing regions, keeping edible oil prices low.

 

(A.)  Only II

(B.)  Only III

(C.)  Only I and II

(D.)  Only II and III

(E.)  All of the above

 

Besides is another way of saying- ‘in addition to’. It would fit in cases where both the statements add-on to each other.

Statement I: The leaders at the summit would deliberate on having a tri-services military exercise among the member nations. They would be exchanging views on a free trade agreement.

The statement conveys that the leaders would talk about a military exercise as well as a free trade agreement. The second statement adds-on to the first one and besides is thus an ideal fit here.

Final statement: The leaders at the summit would deliberate on having a tri-services military exercise among the member nations besides exchanging views on a free trade agreement.

Statement II: The incident shows India has the capacity to handle disasters like these. It also signals India’s economic clout as an aid donor.

The statement conveys that India has the ability to handle disaster and also weight as an aid donor making besides an ideal choice.

Final statement: The incident shows India has the capacity to handle disasters like these besides signaling India’s economic clout as an aid donor.

Statement III: There is a decrease in the demand from vanaspati mills. There is an increase in arrivals from producing regions, keeping edible oil prices low.

Besides can also be put at the beginning of the statement. There are two ways of writing the statement

Way I: There is a decrease in the demand from vanaspati mills besides being an increase in arrivals from producing regions, keeping edible oil prices low.

Way II: Besides a decrease in the demand from vanaspati mills, there is an increase in arrivals from producing regions, keeping edible oil prices low.

Both ways are correct.

 

Example of 3rd Type of Sentence Connectors:

Directions: In each of the questions given below, there are three statements numbered (I), (II) & (III). Each of these statements further has two sub-statements. You are required to combine the two statements using the connecting word provided and choose the correct combination as your answer.

On condition that

I. The loan was waived by the government for all farmers. The MSP amount would be refunded by the farmers to the government.
II. The teacher explained the whole chapter in detail for the n-th time. The students could get full marks in the final examination.

(A.)  Only I

(B.)  Only II

(C.)  Both I and II

(D.)  Neither I and II

At times, the connectors would not fit strictly in the categories mentioned above. In such cases, the best way is to understand the meaning of the connector and look for statements accordingly. In the example above, ‘on condition that’ clearly implies that one of the statements would involve a certain condition, on the fulfillment of which the second statement would take place.

Statement I: The loan was waived by the government for all farmers. The MSP amount would be refunded by the farmers to the government.

Here, a give and take relation has been depicted with the government waiving loans for the farmers while the farmers giving back the MSP amount to the government. Thus, it becomes-

Final statement: The loan was waived by the government for all farmers on the condition that the MSP amount would be refunded by the farmers to the government.

Statement III: The teacher explained the whole chapter in detail for the n-th time. The students could get full marks in the final examination.

The relationship here is not give and take. A teacher’s duty is to explain the concepts and there cannot be any condition of getting a certain amount of marks imposed on the students. This is incorrect on the basis of logical in-coherency.

In some questions, connectors are given along with a fragment of one of the statements indicating the final statement was to start in a particular specified way only-

Example of 4th Type of Sentence Connectors:

Direction: Select the phrase/connector (it must be at the start) from the given three options which can be used to form a single sentence from the two sentences given below, implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences.

Data Science is emerging as a very popular career option in India these days. A lot of new opportunities are going to come in this field in the coming years.

I. With a lot of new opportunities going to come in data science….
II. As data science is emerging as a very popular career….
III. Because a lot of new opportunities are expected in the field of ….

(A.)  Both II and III

(B.)  Both I and III

(C.)  Only II

(D.)  Only III

(E.)  Both I and II

Statement I: With a lot of new opportunities going to come in data science….
Here, part II of the original statement has already been stated above along with the connector with. We need to see if the first part also fits in with the given fragment.

Final Statement: With a lot of new opportunities going to come in data science…. Data Science is emerging as a very popular career option in India these days.
As can be seen, both parts match well and can be written together with the given connector and fragment.

Statement II: As data science is emerging as a very popular career…..
Here, part I of the original statement has already been stated above along with the connector As. We need to see if the second part also fits in with the given fragment.

Final Statement: As data science is emerging as a very popular career…. in India these days. A lot of new opportunities are going to come in this field in the coming years.

This is incorrect as the cause and effect relationship has been reversed. It is because of data science offering opportunities that it is becoming a popular career option and not the other way around. Because the given fragment is fixed and the statement has to be formed in that way only, the statement so formed is incorrect although the connector used is correct.

Statement III: Because a lot of new opportunities are expected in the field of ….
Here, part II of the original statement has already been stated above along with the connector with. We need to see if the first part also fits in with the given fragment.
Final Statement: Because a lot of new opportunities are expected in the field of …. Data Science in the coming years, it is emerging as a very popular career option in India these days.

As can be seen, both parts match well and can be written together with the given connector and fragment.

Example of 5th Type of Sentence Connectors:

Directions: Select the phrase/connector out of the three phrases/connectors given as (I), (II) and (III) which can be used in the beginning to form a single sentence from the two or three statements given while implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences.

A. An initial meeting took place which was positive.
B. There are still a range of questions on the viability of the arrangement.

I. Despite an initial meeting..
II. Because there are still…
III. Even though the viability of the…

(A.)  Only II

(B.)  Only III

(C.)  Only I and II

(D.)  Only II and III

(E.)  All of the above

On reading the two statements, we notice they are in contrast- one talks about a meeting being positive while the other about questioning the viability of the subject of the arrangement. Looking at this, we need connectors which convey this contrast. This eliminates the connector ‘because’.

Statement I: Despite an initial meeting.. which was positive, there are still a range of questions on the viability of the arrangement.
This is correct clearly.

Statement II: Because there are still… a range of questions on the viability of the arrangement, an initial meeting took place which was positive.
This does not make sense at all. If there were questions on the viability, the initial meeting being positive does not make sense.

Statement III: Even though the viability of the… arrangement is questioned, an initial meeting took place which was positive.
This is also correct.

Example of 6th Type of Sentence Connectors:

Direction: Select the phrase/connector (it must be at the start) from the given three options which can be used to form a single sentence from the two sentences given below, implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences.

Many students are now very concerned about the environment. It is a good sign for the country as well as the society.

I. As many students are now very concerned about the environment ……..
II. That many students are now very concerned about the environment ……..
III. Though many students are now very concerned about the environment ……..

(A.)  Both II and III

(B.)  Only II

(C.)  Both I and III

(D.)  Only I

(E.)  Both I and II

 

Here the statements add on to each other and move in the same direction. ‘As’ and ‘that’ both are used to join complementary statements and are correct. However, ‘though’ is used in cases where the statements are in contrast and is thus incorrect.

Statement I: As many students are now very concerned about the environment …….. It is a good sign for the country as well as the society.
Statement II: That many students are now very concerned about the environment….. is a good sign for the country as well as the society.

Thus, both I and II are correct.

Want to practise different types of Sentence Connectors for upcoming Bank exams?

Attempt New Pattern Sentence Connectors Quiz at www.smartkeeda.com.

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New Pattern Parajumbles PDF with How to Answer Tips